Articles

Okoi, Obasesam. 2021. “The Responsibility to Defend? Boko Haram Terrorism and Responses to Terror-Induced Displacement in Northeast Nigeria.” In Boko Haram’s Campaign of Terror in the Lake Chad: Context, Dimensions and Future Trajectories, pp. 103-123,eds. Tope Oriola, Freedom Onuoha, and Samuel Oyewole (Routledge).

Since the emergence of Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria, a startling trajectory of terrorism manifested itself in catastrophic death and destruction including massive population displacement that left millions of people in need of humanitarian assistance in the worst affected states of Adamawa, Bornu, and Yobe. The preponderance of Boko Haram’s tactical violence and the culminating impact on population displacement underscores the limited capacity of the state to protect its citizens from security threats arising from within its sovereign territoriality. This chapter contends that neglecting the victims of terror-induced displacement not only constitutes a breach of human rights but also a national security threat. The author draw insights from theories of sovereignty and domestic responsibility to examine the question: Who has the responsibility to defend victims of terror in Northeast Nigeria? This chapter argues that, in the context of terrorism in Northeast Nigeria, the state has lost its monopoly over the means of violence and its capacity to protect victims of terror and may need to rethink its human rights responsibility. In this context, this chapter introduces the “responsibility to defend” (R2D) as a new concept with far-reaching theoretical and practical implications as it pertains to the human rights of IDPs.

Okoi, Obasesam. 2021. “The Failure of Governance in Nigeria: An Epistocratic Challenge.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. (with MaryAnne Iwara)

The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.

Okoi, Obasesam. 2020. “How Heath Inequality Affect Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Development, 135, 105067. (with Tatenda Bwawa)

The COVID-19 outbreak has infected millions of people across the world, caused hundreds of thousands of deaths, and collapsed national economies. Recognizing the importance of handwashing in preventing the spread of COVID-19, concerns have arisen about the condition of millions of Africans who lack access to hygiene facilities and clean water services. This paper compiles evidence from the WHO-UNICEF data to show the health disparities that limit the capacity of African countries to effectively address the COVID-19 disease along with recommendations for addressing the challenge.

Okoi, Obasesam. 2019. “Peacebuilding and Transformational Change in Nigeria’s Oil Region.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly 19(1): 1-16.

This article draws on primary sources to examine postconflict transformations in Nigeria’s oil region. The overarching goal of the article is to evaluate the impact of Nigeria’s disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration program and its effectiveness as a vehicle for peacebuilding in the oil region, focusing specifically on the changes it has brought to the lives of former insurgents at the cultural, intrapersonal, structural, and interpersonal (CISI) levels. This study introduces the CISI model of conflict transformation to put these changes into context and explain why they are crucial for understanding peacebuilding and transformational change.

Okoi, Obasesam. 2020. “How corruption undermines peacebuilding in Nigeria’s oil region,” The Conversation.

2016. “Limits of International Law: Settlement of the Nigeria-Cameroon Territorial Conflict,” International Journal on World Peace 33(2): 77-102.

This article examines the role of international law in the settlement of the Nigeria-Cameroon Bakassi Peninsula conflict. Human rights problems emerged in Nigeria following the implementation of the International Court of Justice judgment that ceded the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon. The implementation of international law aggravated structural violence through the displacement of Bakassi people from their homeland and their exposure to vulnerability and poverty. International law is insufficiently developed and limited in its capacity to address the settlement of territorial conflicts beyond the cessation of armed conflict between rival states. This paper recommends that international law and its implementation by states should accord primacy to the well being of people over territory by promoting a transparent, effective, and accountable system for ensuring full and proper implementation of the human rights and resettlement obligations of governments.

Okoi, Obasesam. 2019. “The Paradox of Nigeria’s Oil Dependency.” Africa Portal, January 21.

Okoi, Obasesam. 2016. “Why Nations Fight: The Causes of the Nigeria–Cameroon Bakassi Peninsula Conflict.” African Security, 9(1):42-65.

This article examines the conditions under which state leaders chose to make territorial issues a point of contention using the Nigeria–Cameroon Bakassi Peninsula conflict as an empirical case. Drawing on the theoretical insights of neoclassical realism, the article surveys evidence from the importance of domestic political and economic conditions to the relevance of cultural and historical factors as well as from territorial and geopolitical issues to contend that the Nigeria–Cameroon conflict emerged from three theoretical logics: the territorial logic of aggression, the geostrategic logic of aggression, and the diversionary logic of aggression. The qualitative evidence is synthesized to enhance greater understanding of the domestic and international linkages that connect petroleum with territory and aggressive foreign policy.